Natural diamonds, that have been cut into many facets are considered one of the most beautiful things on Earth. This nature-made beauty sculpted by man glistens and sparkles in the light. Diamonds bring joy to many people by their brilliance. However, few stop to think about their origins.
Diamonds are not created on the Earth's surface and very few are thrust there by the violent motions which the surface of the planet can sometimes be subject in the form of volcanoes. This is why companies must mine for diamonds. They are formed about 100 miles under the Earth's surface. Diamonds are primarily made up of carbon. Pure carbon can take on many forms including diamond, graphite, and fullerite. To become a natural diamond, carbon must spend millions of years under extreme heat (900° - 1300° C) and pressure (45 - 60 kilobars) deep inside the earth . This changes the way the atoms in the carbon bond together. The end result is a fully formed diamond.
If the temperature and pressure are not just right, then graphite will form. There is quite a difference between the beauty of diamonds and graphite,which is commonly used as the core of pencils!
Because diamonds are the hardest material found in nature, they can scratch nearly any surface. Imagine the vast number of materials in the world; a diamond must be extremely durable to rise above all others. Australia, Botswana, Russia, and the Congo account for a large portion of the world's diamond mining.